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Final Reports

Midwest Technology Assistance Center for Small Public Water Systems Final Report USEPA Grant# X832591-01 Kent W. Smothers, Richard E. Warner, Steve D. Wilson
Abstract: The Midwest Technology Assistance Center (MTAC) was established October 1, 1998 to provide assistance to small public water systems throughout the Midwest via funding from the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) under section 1420(f) of the 1996 amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act. This report summarizes progress made under USEPA Grant# 832591-01 for funds received in Federal Years (FY) 05 and 06.
MTAC is a cooperative effort of the 10 states of the Midwest (congruent with USEPA regions 5 and 7), led by the Illinois State Water Survey and the University of Illinois. The director of their Water Resources Institute (WRI) coordinates the participation of each state in MTAC. Dr. Richard Warner (WRI director) and Kent Smothers were the principal investigators for this project. Kent Smothers serves as the managing director of the center, and is responsible for conducting routine activities with the advice and counsel of Dr. Richard Warner.
Midwest Technology Assistance Center for Small Public Water Systems Final Report USEPA Grant# X829218-01 Kent W. Smothers, Dr. Richard Warner, and Dr. John Braden
Abstract: The Midwest Technology Assistance Center (MTAC) was established October 1, 1998 to provide assistance to small public water systems throughout the Midwest via funding from the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) under section 1420(f) of the 1996 amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act. This report summarizes all projects funded under USEPA Grant# X829218-01, corresponding to funding received from federal fiscal years 2001, 2002, 2003, and 2004.
MTAC was formed as a cooperative effort of ten Midwest states (congruent with USEPA regions 5 and 7), led by the Illinois State Water Survey and the University of Illinois. Dr. John Braden and Kent Smothers were the original Principal Investigators for this project. Kent Smothers has served as the Managing Director of the Center since its inception, and is responsible for overseeing the activities of individual project Principal Investigators and preparing and submitting quarterly and final reports. Dr. Richard E. Warner has been actively involved as an advisor to MTAC in his role as Director of the Illinois Water Resources Center at the University of Illinois, and has replaced Dr. Braden as the lead Principal Investigator for the project. The final report is organized by the fiscal years the projects were funded.

Final Technical Reports

Assessing the Environmental and Capacity Development Outcomes of Small Water System Board and Management Training< Stephen Gasteyer and Keith Taylor
Goal: This project assesses the outcomes of community water system board and management training (BMT) in enhancing community technical, financial, and managerial capacity and in achieving or protecting environmental quality and public health. The assessment will recognize and compare the diversity of types of board training, and the context in which these trainings are conducted. The outputs of this initiative will include: 1) a manual on outcome measurement of BMT; and 2) an assessment of BMT as implemented in Illinois, Kansas, Kentucky, Mississippi, and Ohio. The outcome of this initiative will be greater knowledge by EPA and partners about how to measure the environmental and capacity development impacts of BMT. Smart Pipe: Nanosensors for Monitoring Water Quantity and Quality in Public Water Systems Yu-Feng Lin and Chang Liu
Project Significance: A 2009 study by the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) showed that 7 billion gallons of clean, treated drinking water disappears every day, mostly due to old, leaky pipes and mains. The amount is enough to serve the population of California in daily water usage. The approximate dollar cost, given varied water rates in different U.S. regions, is $20 to $100 million daily. Unfortunately, America’s drinking water systems face an annual shortfall of at least $11 billion to replace aging facilities that are near the end of their useful lives and to comply with existing and future federal water regulations. Moreover, leaking systems have wasted not only dollars but also priceless natural and energy resources for future generations. ... (more) Evaluating Drought Vulnerability of Small Community Surface Water Supply Systems in the Midwest Knapp, H. Vernon, Jory S. Hecht,
Abstract: This report presents approaches and data availability for evaluating the drought vulnerability of small community water supply systems in the Midwest that obtain water from surface water bodies, such as rivers, streams, natural lakes, and man-made reservoirs. A description is provided of the various types of surface water sources from which 320 small community systems in the Midwest, each serving 10,000 or fewer people, obtain their water. The small community surface water system most commonly obtains its supply from one or two small impounding reservoirs. However, a substantial number of communities instead obtain their water from either direct river withdrawals or off-channel storage of water withdrawn from streams and rivers. Sixty of these 320 small community surface water systems were interviewed to gather information on the availability of data to determine the drought vulnerability of these systems. Although hydrologic and physical data exist for evaluating many of these systems, relatively few of the interviewed system managers could provide such pertinent information. ... (more) Spatial Variability of Arsenic in Groundwater Thomas R. Holm and Steven D. Wilson
Abstract: Approximately 50 Illinois public water systems have source water with arsenic (As) concentrations that exceed the maximum contaminant level of 10 micrograms per liter. Some of these systems may consider drilling one or more new wells in an attempt to locate low-arsenic water. Recent research by the Illinois State Water Survey and other agencies has found that As concentrations can vary dramatically among wells that are separated by distances of 1-10 kilometers (km). The objective of this research was to characterize the variability of As concentrations over distances of tens to hundreds of meters and determine the feasibility of a process that a small water system could use to site a new well with low-As water. Two clusters of 10 to 20 private wells of 1 to 2 km in diameter in Tazewell County and 10 private wells in Wonder Lake in McHenry County were sampled for As and supporting geochemical data. The maps of As concentrations show the complexity of As spatial distribution in these areas and the process a water utility may follow to locate low-As water. Development of an Anionic Exchange Glass Fiber Substrate POU Device to Remove Arsenic Xuan Li, Jinwen Wang, James Economy, Walton R. Kelly
Project Significance: Arsenic poisoning is one of the most widespread water-related problems in the world (Cullen and Reimer, 1989). Arsenic in drinking water causes bladder, lung, and skin cancer. Even very low doses of arsenic may damage the central and peripheral nervous systems, heart, and blood vessels, and may also lead to serious skin problems. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has set a maximum contaminant level (MCL) for arsenic in drinking water at 10 micrograms per liter (µg/L). A National Academy of Sciences report (2001) has indicated that, even at levels as low as 3 µg/L, the risk of cancer is still ten times that of EPA’s acceptable value (0.1 per 1000 people). Thus the acceptable levels for arsenic may be further lowered in the future. Based on the best available data, it is conservatively estimated that more than 34 million Americans drink tap water from water supplies containing average levels of arsenic greater than 3 µg/L (Kartinen and Martin, 1995; National Academy of Sciences, 2001; Johnston and Heijnen, 2001; Wilson et al., 2004; Newcombe and Möller, 2006). Many millions more are at risk worldwide, most notably in Bangladesh and eastern India. In the Midwestern United States, numerous wells contain arsenic concentrations higher than 10 µg/L. A map showing public water supply wells in Illinois with arsenic concentrations > 10 µg/L is shown in Figure 1 (Wilson et al., 2004). The development of improved or new treatment technologies for removal of the two major arsenic ions, arsenate [As(V)] and arsenite [As(III)], is needed to help mitigate worldwide problems of arsenic-contaminated water and protect public health. ... (more) Fate of Arsenic in the Mahomet Aquifer; The Influence of Added Sulfate and Nitrate Robert Sanford, Theodore Flynn, Thomas Holm, and Walton Kelly
Introduction: Material from the Mahomet aquifer, known to have pockets of high arsenic concentration, was evaluated for different microbiological activities that could influence the mobility of arsenic in groundwater. Project activities included a thorough assessment of core material collected in a region of the aquifer known for high arsenic concentration and flow-through column experiments evaluating the potential nature of arsenic mobilization in the subsurface. Emerging Health Concerns Related to Water Treatment Michael J. Plewa, Ph.D., Elizabeth D. Wagner, Ph.D.

Executive Summary: Drinking water utilities provide an exceedingly important public health service through their generation of high quality, safe and palatable tap water. The disinfection of drinking water in public facilities primarily employs chemical disinfectants such as chlorine, chloramines, ozone and chlorine dioxide. These disinfectants are oxidants that convert naturally occurring and synthetic organic material, bromide, and iodide in the raw water into chemical disinfection byproducts (DBPs). DBPs are an unintended consequence and were first discovered over 30 years ago. Each disinfection method generates a different spectrum and distribution of DBPs; to date over 600 DBPs have been identified. While reducing the public health risk of acute infection by waterborne pathogens, the unintended generation of DBPs poses a chronic health risk. DBPs represent an important class of environmentally hazardous chemicals that are regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) and carry long-term human health implications. Epidemiological studies demonstrated that individuals who consume chlorinated drinking water have an elevated risk of cancer. DBPs have been linked to reproductive and developmental effects, including the induction of spontaneous abortions in humans.

Although chlorine has been used for over 100 years in the United States as a water disinfectant, the majority of DBPs present in drinking water have yet to be chemically characterized. With only approximately 30% of the total organic halide identified to specific DBP chemical classes, and a small fraction of these evaluated for their biological and toxicological effects, it is clear that a great deal of work remains in the characterization of DBPs. ... (more)

Field Testing and Modeling of the Fenton-Filtration Process for Arsenic Removal Thomas R. Holm, Gary R. Peyton, and Steven D. Wilson
Abstract: The Fenton-filtration process has been found to lower the arsenic (As) concentration in groundwater below the maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 10 micrograms per liter (µg/L). Oxidation of As(III) to As(V) and the addition of supplemental iron (Fe) to improve sorption were both essential for effective treatment. In the present work, Fenton-filtration was compared with chemical oxidation using conventional treatment chemicals. Both sodium hypochlorite and potassium permanganate were more effective than Fenton filtration at oxidizing As(III). Therefore, the choice of treatment method may depend on economic factors. The effect of natural organic matter (NOM) on the Fenton-filtration process was unclear. Laboratory experiments using groundwater and synthetic solutions showed that reactions involving NOM are significant, that hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is produced in these reactions, and that there is no benefit in adding H2O2 in excess of the Fe(II) concentration. Earlier research on As sorption used a double-layer model that generally under-predicted As removal. A more recent triple-plane model was applied to the data from a series of Fenton-filtration tests and was found to give better predictions of soluble As in treated water than the double-layer model, although it still underpredicted As removal. Planning, Developing and Maintaining a Groundwater Supply - A Brochure for Small Communities in the Midwest Steven D. Wilson, H. Allen Wehrmann, and Robert D. Olson
Abstract: The Illinois State Water Survey (ISWS) organized two groundwater workshops to teach engineering consultants, water operators, and drillers about the groundwater resources of the state, techniques for well and aquifer test analysis, well and well field design considerations, and the steps needed for development of or expansion of a groundwater supply. Using these materials as a basis, MTAC has funded the ISWS to develop a guidance booklet for small systems on the issues, needs, and steps necessary for developing/expanding their groundwater supply.
The booklet provides an introductory section on groundwater terms and concepts to provide the operator a basic knowledge of groundwater and well hydrology and hydraulics, a description of the areas in the Midwest suitable for groundwater exploration, step by step instructions on what tasks and considerations are necessary to properly develop a groundwater supply, responsibilities for planning and developing a groundwater supply, state by state (region 5) contacts and links to the requirements for permitting, installing, and operating a groundwater supply, and a list of resources in each state that the operator can turn to for advice and guidance. ... (more) Radium and Barium in the Ironton-Galesville Bedrock Aquifer in Northeastern Illinois Walton R. Kelly
Abstract: Elevated radium (Ra) and barium (Ba) concentrations are found in deep bedrock aquifers in parts of northern Illinois. There is rapid development occurring in the Chicago region, and many residents rely on groundwater for their drinking water. Radium and Ba contamination is the most important water quality issue for public water suppliers in most of northern Illinois. Water from deep bedrock aquifers typically has to be treated or blended to reduce concentrations of these contaminants. In addition to health considerations, the presence of Ba can cause precipitation of barite (BaSO4) in well bores, pumps, and discharge pipes, necessitating expensive maintenance. Because most wells drilled into deep bedrock aquifers are open to multiple aquifers, allowing waters to mix within the borehole, it is difficult to establish if one or more specific aquifers are primarily responsible for the elevated Ra and/or Ba. Gilkeson et al. (1983) suggested that the Ironton-Galesville aquifer may be the major source of contamination, based primarily on indirect evidence.
The objective of this project was to identify and sample wells open only to individual deep bedrock aquifers in the Chicago region, and analyze for radioisotopes (226Ra, 228Ra), Ba, and complete inorganic chemistry. A better understanding of the occurrence of Ra and Ba may help public water suppliers in siting future deep bedrock wells. Building Technical, Financial, and Managerial Capacity for Small Water Systems: The Role of Consolidation, Partnership, and Other Organizational Innovations John B. Braden and Min-Yang Lee
Abstract: Problems of compliance with the SDWA can arise for many reasons. Some are attributable to limited customer bases producing lower revenues to cover fixed costs, lower bond ratings making borrowing more costly, and higher per-customer service costs. On average, the per-household cost of infrastructure of small systems is more than three times greater than that of systems serving more than 10,000 people (USEPA, 1999) Combining resources and administrative structures across small systems can reduce overhead while also gaining economies of scale. The resulting larger systems generally can afford greater technical sophistication and their bond issues to finance system improvements are more attractive in financial markets. Thus, encouraging small watersystem mergers and reorganizations can be an important strategy for improved compliance. However, there are a variety of theories about how such organizational changes come about. Testing of Homeland Security Implemented from Vulnerability Assessments and Emergency Response Planning Harlan H. Bengtson, ERTC-SIUE
Abstract: This was a cooperative project with the Environmental Resources Training Center (ERTC) at Southern Illinois University – Edwardsville. ERTC conducted numerous training workshops and inspections related to Vulnerability Assessment, and provided consulting services to small systems throughout Illinois to assist them in using VAP software. ERTC visited 4 water plants serving less than 3300 people that have VAPs to evaluate the effectiveness of their implemented security measures. Demonstration of Low-Cost Arsenic Removal from a Variety of Illinois Drinking Waters Gary R. Peyton and Thomas R. Holm
Abstract: Four groundwater sources used as drinking water in Illinois were treated using the Fenton reaction (hydrogen peroxide + Fe(II)) to oxidize As(III) to As(V) before adsorption of the arsenic to the iron precipitate produced during iron removal by aeration/filtration. For all four waters used, the arsenic concentration could be reduced to below the 10 microgram/liter maximum contaminant level using relatively inexpensive doses of iron and peroxide, despite the need to add iron (Fe(II) or Fe(III) were both tried) in all cases to completely adsorb the arsenic. The waters differed in their treatability, but in each case, the least expensive configuration used Fe(III) rather than Fe(II). It was shown that consumption of reactive species by reaction with Fe(II) was a very significant sink for Fe(II) at higher iron concentrations, and was primarily responsible for the difference in efficiency using Fe(II) and Fe(III). Peroxide doses greater than 20-27 micromolar improved arsenic removal in Monticello and Dwight water, but not in Danvers water. In most cases, the treatability of the waters did not appear to correlate negatively with the alkalinity, phosphate, silicate, or organic content of the waters. A correlation was expected because of the known competition between arsenic and the other natural solutes for both sorption sites and reactive species generated during the Fenton reaction. Chemical addition in the range of 3-6.4 milligrams per liter Fe(III) and 20-45 micromolar (0.68-1.5 milligrams/liter) peroxide was adequate to reduce the total arsenic to the maximum contaminant level in all four waters. The estimated chemical cost was $0.04 to $0.07 per thousand gallons in the most favorable cases for each water. Temporal Variability of Arsenic in Municipal Well Water Thomas R. Holm, Steven D. Wilson, and Walton R. Kelly
Abstract: Short-term variations in groundwater arsenic (As) concentrations were characterized at four water treatment plants in Illinois and one in Indiana. At each plant, water samples were collected at 45-minute intervals over a six-hour period. Concentrations of As remained steady during the entire test at three facilities. At one facility, the As concentration increased from 58 µg/L in the first sample to 82 µg/L after 2.5 hours. At another facility the As concentration increased from 48 µg/L in the first sample to 68-70 µg/L in all subsequent samples. Variations in As over several years four of these facilities were characterized using data from the Water Survey’s groundwater-quality database. The long-term As variations were unique at each facility. For example, at one facility, the minimum and maximum As concentrations were 20 µg/L and 120 µg/L, a factor of 6. At another facility, the range in As was relatively narrow, with minimum and maximum As concentrations of 34 µg/L and 46 µg/L. Watershed Modeling to Evaluate Water Quality at Intakes of Small Drinking Water Systems Deva K. Borah, Edward C. Krug, Maitreyee Bera
Abstract: Water quantity and quality at surface water supply intakes are of serious concern nationwide. Existing studies have focused on characterization and assessment of public water supplies. However, there exists no research on evaluation of water quantity and quality at surface water supply intakes, and development of comprehensive watershed modeling tools to do so. Furthermore, no existing model is capable of comprehensively simulating all of the hydrologic, upland soil and streambank erosion, sediment transport, and fate and transport of nutrient and pesticide processes necessary to comprehensively assess the water quantity and quality problems and help make the best management decisions to eliminate or minimize those problems. Microcosm Study of Arsenic Fate in Mahomet Aquifer Sediment and Groundwater Robert Sanford, Theodore Flynn, Department of Geology, UIUC and Walton Kelly, Illinois State Water Survey
Abstract: Arsenic (As) occurs naturally in many aquifer systems (WELCH et al., 2000) and when present in drinking water is associated with many health effects (JAIN and ALI, 2000). The USEPA recently lowered the As maximum contaminant level (MCL) from 50 µg L-1 to 10 µg L-1 (0.13 µM). Public water supplies that fail to meet the As MCL by early 2006 must develop a plan for compliance. The Illinois Environmental Protection Agency (IEPA) has sent As rule change letters to 36 communities. Installing new treatment systems or drilling new wells may impose an economic hardship on small water systems (FREY et al., 1998). Although private wells are unregulated, As is of concern to many private well owners because of health concerns. ... Using Financial, Technical and Managerial Capacity Measures in an Assistance-Oriented Approach to Comparative Performance Assessment of Small Drinking Water Utilities in the Midwest Technology Assistance Center (MTAC) Region A. Desai, John Glenn School of Public Affairs and M. Stanford, J. McGarvey, National Regulatory Research Institute
Abstract: Performance measurement has a long history in the evaluation of the quality and level of services provided by public and private utilities. The goal of this project is to provide a practical framework within which to develop and provide comparative performance measures that improve the financial, managerial, and technical capacity of small public and private drinking water utilities within the Midwest Technology Assistance Center Region. Our analysis includes data from small public and private drinking water utilities regulated by state commissions in Indiana, Illinois, Missouri, Ohio, and Wisconsin. Introduction to Financial Benchmarking Workbook Roger Beck, Tom Bik, & Ben Dziegielewski, Southern Illinois University Carbondale
Abstract: The purpose of this workbook is to introduce the topic of benchmarking, to demonstrate how this approach can be applied to financial management of small drinking water systems, and to identify some of the many resources that managers can use to assess and improve their drinking water systems. Chemical Oxidation for Arsenic Removal Thomas R. Holm and Steve D. Wilson, Illinois State Water Survey
Abstract: The effects on arsenic (As) removal at iron removal water treatment plants of two common chemical oxidants, potassium permanganate (KMnO4) and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), and ferric chloride (FeCl3) were characterized. On-site and laboratory experiments were performed using water from three Illinois water utilities whose potable water exceeds the As maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 10 mg L-1. Aeration, the most common iron removal process, was used as a point of reference. In all cases arsenic removal was improved (compared to aeration) by KMnO4 or NaOCl addition. Aeration had little effect on arsenic speciation; the proportions of As(III) and As(V) were essentially the same before and after aeration. Both KMnO4 and NaOCl oxidized As(III) to As(V). However, the KMnO4 dose depended only on the iron (Fe) concentration. On the other hand, NaOCl also reacts with ammonium (NH4 +) and the NaOCl dose depended on both Fe and NH4 + concentrations. Arsenic removal depended strongly on the Fe:As ratio with the best As removal at Fe:As values above 50. For the utility with the lowest As and highest Fe concentrations, oxidant addition alone was sufficient to satisfy the MCL. For the other two utilities both oxidant and FeCl3 had to be added to meet the MCL. Understanding and Minimizing Impacts of Agricultural Pesticides on Small Water Systems Using Surface Water Jane Frankenberger, Associate Professor, Agricultural and Biological Engineering, Purdue University
Abstract: Several small public water systems in the Midwest have exceeded the maximum contaminant level (MCL) for atrazine, a common herbicide used through Midwestern watersheds. Water systems that use surface water are more susceptible to pesticide contamination than systems that use ground water. The overall goal of the project was to facilitate source water protection related to agricultural pesticides, with a focus on atrazine, because of the prevalence of atrazine in surface water in the Midwest compared to other agricultural pesticides. The project accomplished three objectives:
  1. Compile information on levels of atrazine (ppb) in community water systems in Indiana that use surface water, and make the information accessible to the drinking water community, the agricultural community, and the public.
  2. Assess the water quality impacts of potential changes to pesticide application and management practices in watersheds used by small community water systems.
  3. Educate pesticide applicators and the public about watersheds used by community water supply systems, and the importance of knowing about these watersheds in making pesticide applications.

This project addressed the MTAC research priority “Measures to strengthen source water protection for small systems in the Midwest”. Development of Low Cost Treatment Options for Arsenic Removal in Water Treatment Facilities Gary R. Peyton; Thomas R. Holm; and John Shim, Illinois State Water Survey
Abstract: Many water treatment plants that utilize groundwater will be burdened with additional expenses in order to meet the new Maximum Contaminant Level of 10 :g/L for arsenic. The objective of this project was to develop an inexpensive treatment option for arsenic removal, suitable particularly for small communities, by extending and optimizing the Fenton chemistry that already occurs during iron removal at many drinking water treatment plants. Improvement of the efficiency of arsenic (III) oxidation to arsenic (V) by hydrogen peroxide addition and addition of more iron to furnish more hydrous ferric oxides (HFO) for adsorption of the arsenic allow removal of arsenic from 40 to 5 :g/L (compared to 30 :g/L during normal iron removal) in high-DOC (13 mg C/L) groundwater, while increasing chemical costs only slightly, and requiring no large capital equipment costs. Drought Planning for Small Community Water Systems Derek Winstanley, James R. Angel, Timothy P. Bryant, H. Vernon Knapp, Michael A. Palecki, Amy M. Russell, H. Allen Wehrmann
Abstract: The provision of adequate and secure supplies of clean water at reasonable cost is a cornerstone of social and economic development and national security. Major droughts have occurred in the past and will occur again in the future. Such droughts have two major impacts on small community water systems: water supply is reduced (surface waters and shallow groundwater) and water demand increases. The combination of these impacts can result in major stresses on the ability of water systems to meet demand. Many Western states have experienced widespread and severe economic and environmental impacts of “worst-case” droughts in recent years, and have recognized from these experiences the importance of improved water-supply planning and management, including drought preparedness. However, it is probable that many system managers in the Midwest Technology Assistance Center (MTAC) region have not evaluated their capability to meet water demand during major droughts, nor have in place adequate plans to deal with such emergencies. The MTAC region incorporates the 10 states of Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, Ohio, and Wisconsin. Arsenic and Bacteriophage Ms2 Removal from Groundwater by Nanoparticulate Aluminum Oxide Coated Granular Filter Media: A Pilot-Scale Evaluation on the Effect of pH and Coating Density Boris L. T. Lau, Gregory W. Harrington, Marc. A. Anderson, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Wisconsin – Madison
Abstract: Adsorptive filtration is a technique based on the coating of a filter medium with adsorbents, resulting in modified media that can act simultaneously as a filter and as an adsorbent (Zouboulis and Katsoyiannis, 2002). Numerous studies have demonstrated that adsorptive filtration is a promising technology for removal of inorganic and microbiological contaminants. While previous studies have demonstrated the ability to coat granular media by precipitation of metallic salts, this study applied nanoscale materials as coatings. This study involved the development of an innovative physicochemical adsorptive filtration technology for removal of bacteriophage MS2 and arsenic in groundwater. The effects of pH and coating density on contaminant removal were evaluated through coated and uncoated anthracite and granular activated carbon. Lowering pH and increasing coating density resulted in higher arsenic and MS2 removal. This study not only demonstrated the benefits of nanoparticulate aluminum oxide coated filter media but also characterized the potential risks associated with their implementation.
Control of Microbial Contaminants and Biological Agents in Small Systems Benito Marinas, Martin Anthony Page, University of Illinois
Small surface water utilities in the United States are faced with a challenge to meet the demands of the forthcoming Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (LT2 ESWTR) and to protect against the threat of terrorism via water-borne biological agents. The combination of these two problems has resulted in the need for an efficient disinfection upgrade for all surface water utilities that can inactivate even the most resilient microorganisms. For small utilities in particular, upgrade options are significantly constrained by economic factors.
Development of Sulfur-Limestone Autotrophic Denitrification Processes for Treatment of Nitrate-Contaminated Groundwater in Small Communities. Tian C. Zhang, University of Nebraska-Lincoln at Omaha Campus
Study details the development and implementation of an innovative integrated approach - sulfur-limestone autotrophic denitrification (SLAD) process - to remove nitrate from nitrate-contaminated ground water.

Effects of Different Modes of Coagulation as Pretreatment to Membrane Filtration for Drinking Water Production in Small Systems. Isabel C. Escobar, University of Toledo
Ivestigation of the ability of in-line coagulation and coagulant precoating in biostability control. Cylindrospermosis Raciborski Robert Whitworth, Environmental Resource Training Center SIU-Edwardsville
The Environmental Resources Training Center (ERTC) of Southern Illinois University Edwardsville contacted surface water treatment facilities in the state of Illinois advising them about the possibility of this toxin producing algae being present in their surface water source and seeking their assistance in collecting suspect samples. Arsenic Removal in Water Treatment Facilities: Survey Geochemical Factors and Pilot Plant Experiments Dr. Thomas R. Holm, Illinois State Water Survey
The survey of water treatment plans is expected to reveal processes and conditions favorable for efficient removal and lead to improvements in removal. Countywide Projections of Community Water Supply Needs in the Midwest Dr. Bendykt Dzielgielewski, Southern Illinois University-Carbondale
This analysis of county-level, public-supply water use in six Midwestern states provides useful insights into the relationship between water use and those factors that are most likely to predict or explain water use. It also provides a perspective on the challenges that face water system managers and regional officials in planning to meet future water system infrastructure needs in the region. This summary reviews the wateruse projections and related findings of the study, and makes several recommendations for actions that may improve water use forecasting and infrastructure planning for drinking water systems. Arsenic in Illinois Groundwater: Implications for Non-Community Public Water Supplies Steven D. Wilson, Illinois State Water Survey
Review of non-community supplies potentially impacted by high arsenic concentrations.

Source Water Protection Plan Interactive Training Interactive Source Protection training guide for Illinois public water systems. Kevin Kundert, Montana Water Center
Interactive CD Rom available

Benchmark Investigation of Small Public Water System Economics
Dr. Roger J. Beck and Dr. Bendykt Dzielgielewski and Southern Illinois University-Carbondale
Because of their size and resulting inability to achieve economies of scale, small public water systems are hard-pressed to provide consumers with drinking water that meets all state and federal guidelines but is available at a reasonable price. These systems often lack the financial resources to change or adapt treatment processes in response to regulations or to contend with unexpected increases in operation and maintenance costs. The results of the benchmark investigation will allow small systems to develop plans to ensure adequate financial resources will be available to implement solutions to future problems. The information developed will allow comparisons to be made with the status of other small systems. This project will require the extensive surveying of both surface and groundwater supplies, with representative samples from every state of the Midwest to produce a statistically viable study. Technical Assistance and Education for the Native American Nations in Kansas, Nebraska, and South Dakota
Dr. Bruce Dvorak, Dr. Jennifer Miller, and DeLynn Hay, University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Bill Welton, Haskell Indian Nations University
Most Native American tribal drinking water systems face many of the same problems as small public water systems. However, they also have primacy with respect to developing their own drinking water regulations and educating their water resources staff to address water quality and supply problems. While some Native American resources exist in this area, many individual tribes or communities lack adequate technical knowledge and financial resources to deal with these issues on their own. This project will develop a training workshop specifically targeted toward Native American tribal members. The workshop will address issues such as the following: laboratory methods, development of regulatory codes, monitoring needs and methods, and wellhead protection. This project employs Native American educational organizations and speakers as an integral part of the proposal. Corrosion Control in Small Public Water Systems
Dr. Jae K. Park, University of Wisconsin-Madison and Abigail F. Cantor, P.E., Process Research
The Lead and Copper Rule, implemented in 1991, set a Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) for soluble lead and copper concentrations in standing water samples obtained from household plumbing. Treatment options, depending upon system characteristics, can sometimes either prove costly, difficult to control, or have negative secondary impacts in the system. Additionally, many small groundwater systems have not been chlorinated in the past. Chlorine is a strong oxidizer, and as such, would be expected to have a negative impact on corrosion rates. New regulations will require disinfection, and this may negatively influence corrosion rates and the concentrations of lead and copper in the drinking water. Increased corrosion of iron and associated consumer complaints are also possible. This study will address corrosion control in small public water systems, with emphasis on responding to the Lead and Copper Rule, and disinfection related problems such as red water and taste and odor complaints from consumers.
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